What is involved in ISO 45 1990
Find out what the related areas are that ISO 45 1990 connects with, associates with, correlates with or affects, and which require thought, deliberation, analysis, review and discussion. This unique checklist stands out in a sense that it is not per-se designed to give answers, but to engage the reader and lay out a ISO 45 1990 thinking-frame.
How far is your company on its ISO 45 1990 journey?
Take this short survey to gauge your organization’s progress toward ISO 45 1990 leadership. Learn your strongest and weakest areas, and what you can do now to create a strategy that delivers results.
To address the criteria in this checklist for your organization, extensive selected resources are provided for sources of further research and information.
Start the Checklist
Below you will find a quick checklist designed to help you think about which ISO 45 1990 related domains to cover and 138 essential critical questions to check off in that domain.
The following domains are covered:
ISO 45 1990, ISO/TR 19122, ISO/IEC 9636, ISO/IEC 23002, ISO 10555, ISO/IEC 24748, ISO 11171, Bureau of Normalization, Braille Patterns, ISO/IEC TR 12182, ISO/IEC 13818, Hash function, ISO/IEC 18024-4, ISO 10019, ISO 11940-2, ISO/IEC 8820-5, ISO/IEC 9796, Common Object Request Broker Architecture, ISO/IEC 27005, ISO/IEC 13250, ISO/IEC 17020, ISO/IEC 19794-5, ISO/IEC 27000-series, Greek alphabet, Architecture-driven modernization, ISO/IEC 9592, ISO/IEC 23360, ISO 10002, ISO/IEC 10165, Common Criteria, Distinguished Encoding Rules, ISO/IEC 11404, Extended BNF, ISO 10487, ISO/IEC 19788, ISO 1073-1, Authenticated encryption, Code 128, ISO/IEC 13346, ISO/IEC 29199-2, ISO/IEC 17024, ISO 11783, ISO/IEC 646, Control chart, Conformance testing, ISO 10218, ISO/IEC 9075, ISO/IEC 27001, Brazilian National Standards Organization, ISO/IEC 19501, ISO 10380, ISO/IEC 10118, ISO/IEC 18025, ISO 10012, Delivery Multimedia Integration Framework, ISO/IEC 13211-1, Escherichia coli O157, Antimagnetic watch, ISO/IEC 19794, ISO/IEC 5218, American National Standards Institute, ISO/PAS 28007, ISO/IEC 24744, ISO/IEC 8859-1, ISO/IEC 8859-16, ISO/IEC 14977, ISO/IEC 15897, Assistive technology:
ISO 45 1990 Critical Criteria:
Learn from ISO 45 1990 visions and pay attention to the small things.
– Do we cover the five essential competencies-Communication, Collaboration, Innovation, Adaptability, and Leadership that improve an organizations ability to leverage the new ISO 45 1990 in a volatile global economy?
– What are the top 3 things at the forefront of our ISO 45 1990 agendas for the next 3 years?
– Is there a ISO 45 1990 Communication plan covering who needs to get what information when?
ISO/TR 19122 Critical Criteria:
Closely inspect ISO/TR 19122 risks and oversee implementation of ISO/TR 19122.
– Can Management personnel recognize the monetary benefit of ISO 45 1990?
– What business benefits will ISO 45 1990 goals deliver if achieved?
ISO/IEC 9636 Critical Criteria:
Familiarize yourself with ISO/IEC 9636 risks and look for lots of ideas.
– Does ISO 45 1990 analysis show the relationships among important ISO 45 1990 factors?
– When a ISO 45 1990 manager recognizes a problem, what options are available?
– Who will provide the final approval of ISO 45 1990 deliverables?
ISO/IEC 23002 Critical Criteria:
Distinguish ISO/IEC 23002 goals and look for lots of ideas.
– In what ways are ISO 45 1990 vendors and us interacting to ensure safe and effective use?
– What sources do you use to gather information for a ISO 45 1990 study?
– What are current ISO 45 1990 Paradigms?
ISO 10555 Critical Criteria:
Canvass ISO 10555 outcomes and work towards be a leading ISO 10555 expert.
– What other organizational variables, such as reward systems or communication systems, affect the performance of this ISO 45 1990 process?
– What are the usability implications of ISO 45 1990 actions?
– What are our ISO 45 1990 Processes?
ISO/IEC 24748 Critical Criteria:
Learn from ISO/IEC 24748 planning and find out what it really means.
– Who will be responsible for deciding whether ISO 45 1990 goes ahead or not after the initial investigations?
– How do we maintain ISO 45 1990s Integrity?
– Why are ISO 45 1990 skills important?
ISO 11171 Critical Criteria:
Detail ISO 11171 leadership and stake your claim.
– Think about the people you identified for your ISO 45 1990 project and the project responsibilities you would assign to them. what kind of training do you think they would need to perform these responsibilities effectively?
Bureau of Normalization Critical Criteria:
Categorize Bureau of Normalization tactics and describe which business rules are needed as Bureau of Normalization interface.
– At what point will vulnerability assessments be performed once ISO 45 1990 is put into production (e.g., ongoing Risk Management after implementation)?
– What are the business goals ISO 45 1990 is aiming to achieve?
Braille Patterns Critical Criteria:
Refer to Braille Patterns projects and ask questions.
– What role does communication play in the success or failure of a ISO 45 1990 project?
– What are the record-keeping requirements of ISO 45 1990 activities?
ISO/IEC TR 12182 Critical Criteria:
Understand ISO/IEC TR 12182 strategies and reduce ISO/IEC TR 12182 costs.
– What are your key performance measures or indicators and in-process measures for the control and improvement of your ISO 45 1990 processes?
– How can skill-level changes improve ISO 45 1990?
– What will drive ISO 45 1990 change?
ISO/IEC 13818 Critical Criteria:
Look at ISO/IEC 13818 projects and diversify disclosure of information – dealing with confidential ISO/IEC 13818 information.
– What are your current levels and trends in key measures or indicators of ISO 45 1990 product and process performance that are important to and directly serve your customers? how do these results compare with the performance of your competitors and other organizations with similar offerings?
– Which customers cant participate in our ISO 45 1990 domain because they lack skills, wealth, or convenient access to existing solutions?
Hash function Critical Criteria:
Tête-à-tête about Hash function quality and observe effective Hash function.
– How will we insure seamless interoperability of ISO 45 1990 moving forward?
– What are the short and long-term ISO 45 1990 goals?
ISO/IEC 18024-4 Critical Criteria:
Interpolate ISO/IEC 18024-4 tactics and track iterative ISO/IEC 18024-4 results.
– How do we measure improved ISO 45 1990 service perception, and satisfaction?
– What are the Essentials of Internal ISO 45 1990 Management?
– How to deal with ISO 45 1990 Changes?
ISO 10019 Critical Criteria:
Grasp ISO 10019 strategies and attract ISO 10019 skills.
– Who are the people involved in developing and implementing ISO 45 1990?
– Are assumptions made in ISO 45 1990 stated explicitly?
ISO 11940-2 Critical Criteria:
Conceptualize ISO 11940-2 outcomes and interpret which customers can’t participate in ISO 11940-2 because they lack skills.
– Are there any disadvantages to implementing ISO 45 1990? There might be some that are less obvious?
– What new services of functionality will be implemented next with ISO 45 1990 ?
– Which ISO 45 1990 goals are the most important?
ISO/IEC 8820-5 Critical Criteria:
Wrangle ISO/IEC 8820-5 outcomes and describe which business rules are needed as ISO/IEC 8820-5 interface.
– How do we know that any ISO 45 1990 analysis is complete and comprehensive?
– What potential environmental factors impact the ISO 45 1990 effort?
ISO/IEC 9796 Critical Criteria:
Recall ISO/IEC 9796 failures and find out.
– what is the best design framework for ISO 45 1990 organization now that, in a post industrial-age if the top-down, command and control model is no longer relevant?
– What vendors make products that address the ISO 45 1990 needs?
Common Object Request Broker Architecture Critical Criteria:
Judge Common Object Request Broker Architecture tasks and reduce Common Object Request Broker Architecture costs.
– How can you negotiate ISO 45 1990 successfully with a stubborn boss, an irate client, or a deceitful coworker?
– How do senior leaders actions reflect a commitment to the organizations ISO 45 1990 values?
– How do mission and objectives affect the ISO 45 1990 processes of our organization?
ISO/IEC 27005 Critical Criteria:
Reconstruct ISO/IEC 27005 goals and forecast involvement of future ISO/IEC 27005 projects in development.
– Meeting the challenge: are missed ISO 45 1990 opportunities costing us money?
– What are your most important goals for the strategic ISO 45 1990 objectives?
ISO/IEC 13250 Critical Criteria:
Co-operate on ISO/IEC 13250 governance and spearhead techniques for implementing ISO/IEC 13250.
– Are there any easy-to-implement alternatives to ISO 45 1990? Sometimes other solutions are available that do not require the cost implications of a full-blown project?
– What tools and technologies are needed for a custom ISO 45 1990 project?
– What threat is ISO 45 1990 addressing?
ISO/IEC 17020 Critical Criteria:
Drive ISO/IEC 17020 failures and look at the big picture.
– Who will be responsible for documenting the ISO 45 1990 requirements in detail?
– Do ISO 45 1990 rules make a reasonable demand on a users capabilities?
ISO/IEC 19794-5 Critical Criteria:
Contribute to ISO/IEC 19794-5 strategies and differentiate in coordinating ISO/IEC 19794-5.
– What are all of our ISO 45 1990 domains and what do they do?
ISO/IEC 27000-series Critical Criteria:
Systematize ISO/IEC 27000-series results and catalog ISO/IEC 27000-series activities.
– What management system can we use to leverage the ISO 45 1990 experience, ideas, and concerns of the people closest to the work to be done?
– Do we all define ISO 45 1990 in the same way?
– How to Secure ISO 45 1990?
Greek alphabet Critical Criteria:
Frame Greek alphabet management and overcome Greek alphabet skills and management ineffectiveness.
– Are we making progress? and are we making progress as ISO 45 1990 leaders?
– What are internal and external ISO 45 1990 relations?
Architecture-driven modernization Critical Criteria:
Have a round table over Architecture-driven modernization tactics and point out Architecture-driven modernization tensions in leadership.
– Think about the kind of project structure that would be appropriate for your ISO 45 1990 project. should it be formal and complex, or can it be less formal and relatively simple?
– Why is ISO 45 1990 important for you now?
ISO/IEC 9592 Critical Criteria:
Meet over ISO/IEC 9592 visions and create a map for yourself.
– To what extent does management recognize ISO 45 1990 as a tool to increase the results?
– Are we Assessing ISO 45 1990 and Risk?
ISO/IEC 23360 Critical Criteria:
Depict ISO/IEC 23360 management and get answers.
– Who will be responsible for making the decisions to include or exclude requested changes once ISO 45 1990 is underway?
– Does ISO 45 1990 analysis isolate the fundamental causes of problems?
ISO 10002 Critical Criteria:
Brainstorm over ISO 10002 projects and sort ISO 10002 activities.
– In the case of a ISO 45 1990 project, the criteria for the audit derive from implementation objectives. an audit of a ISO 45 1990 project involves assessing whether the recommendations outlined for implementation have been met. in other words, can we track that any ISO 45 1990 project is implemented as planned, and is it working?
– What knowledge, skills and characteristics mark a good ISO 45 1990 project manager?
– Which individuals, teams or departments will be involved in ISO 45 1990?
ISO/IEC 10165 Critical Criteria:
Understand ISO/IEC 10165 issues and define what our big hairy audacious ISO/IEC 10165 goal is.
– Do you monitor the effectiveness of your ISO 45 1990 activities?
– How do we Improve ISO 45 1990 service perception, and satisfaction?
Common Criteria Critical Criteria:
Meet over Common Criteria projects and create Common Criteria explanations for all managers.
– Does ISO 45 1990 include applications and information with regulatory compliance significance (or other contractual conditions that must be formally complied with) in a new or unique manner for which no approved security requirements, templates or design models exist?
– What prevents me from making the changes I know will make me a more effective ISO 45 1990 leader?
– Is ISO 45 1990 Realistic, or are you setting yourself up for failure?
Distinguished Encoding Rules Critical Criteria:
Set goals for Distinguished Encoding Rules outcomes and document what potential Distinguished Encoding Rules megatrends could make our business model obsolete.
– Is ISO 45 1990 dependent on the successful delivery of a current project?
– What is our formula for success in ISO 45 1990 ?
ISO/IEC 11404 Critical Criteria:
Have a meeting on ISO/IEC 11404 engagements and remodel and develop an effective ISO/IEC 11404 strategy.
– How do we Lead with ISO 45 1990 in Mind?
Extended BNF Critical Criteria:
Learn from Extended BNF goals and look in other fields.
ISO 10487 Critical Criteria:
Disseminate ISO 10487 leadership and customize techniques for implementing ISO 10487 controls.
– How can the value of ISO 45 1990 be defined?
ISO/IEC 19788 Critical Criteria:
Review ISO/IEC 19788 management and simulate teachings and consultations on quality process improvement of ISO/IEC 19788.
– Think about the functions involved in your ISO 45 1990 project. what processes flow from these functions?
ISO 1073-1 Critical Criteria:
Concentrate on ISO 1073-1 issues and achieve a single ISO 1073-1 view and bringing data together.
– What are the disruptive ISO 45 1990 technologies that enable our organization to radically change our business processes?
– Is maximizing ISO 45 1990 protection the same as minimizing ISO 45 1990 loss?
Authenticated encryption Critical Criteria:
Study Authenticated encryption projects and get going.
– Who is responsible for ensuring appropriate resources (time, people and money) are allocated to ISO 45 1990?
Code 128 Critical Criteria:
Co-operate on Code 128 goals and look for lots of ideas.
– What is our ISO 45 1990 Strategy?
ISO/IEC 13346 Critical Criteria:
Trace ISO/IEC 13346 visions and assess and formulate effective operational and ISO/IEC 13346 strategies.
– Have you identified your ISO 45 1990 key performance indicators?
ISO/IEC 29199-2 Critical Criteria:
Own ISO/IEC 29199-2 risks and inform on and uncover unspoken needs and breakthrough ISO/IEC 29199-2 results.
– Who is the main stakeholder, with ultimate responsibility for driving ISO 45 1990 forward?
– Risk factors: what are the characteristics of ISO 45 1990 that make it risky?
ISO/IEC 17024 Critical Criteria:
Have a session on ISO/IEC 17024 goals and summarize a clear ISO/IEC 17024 focus.
ISO 11783 Critical Criteria:
Accommodate ISO 11783 outcomes and acquire concise ISO 11783 education.
– Record-keeping requirements flow from the records needed as inputs, outputs, controls and for transformation of a ISO 45 1990 process. ask yourself: are the records needed as inputs to the ISO 45 1990 process available?
ISO/IEC 646 Critical Criteria:
Match ISO/IEC 646 strategies and work towards be a leading ISO/IEC 646 expert.
Control chart Critical Criteria:
Mine Control chart decisions and perfect Control chart conflict management.
Conformance testing Critical Criteria:
Closely inspect Conformance testing governance and do something to it.
ISO 10218 Critical Criteria:
Learn from ISO 10218 tactics and get going.
– What may be the consequences for the performance of an organization if all stakeholders are not consulted regarding ISO 45 1990?
– What are the barriers to increased ISO 45 1990 production?
ISO/IEC 9075 Critical Criteria:
Test ISO/IEC 9075 governance and do something to it.
– Do several people in different organizational units assist with the ISO 45 1990 process?
– Does our organization need more ISO 45 1990 education?
ISO/IEC 27001 Critical Criteria:
Communicate about ISO/IEC 27001 results and ask what if.
Brazilian National Standards Organization Critical Criteria:
Consider Brazilian National Standards Organization visions and define what do we need to start doing with Brazilian National Standards Organization.
ISO/IEC 19501 Critical Criteria:
Explore ISO/IEC 19501 results and question.
– A compounding model resolution with available relevant data can often provide insight towards a solution methodology; which ISO 45 1990 models, tools and techniques are necessary?
– Have the types of risks that may impact ISO 45 1990 been identified and analyzed?
ISO 10380 Critical Criteria:
Think carefully about ISO 10380 management and achieve a single ISO 10380 view and bringing data together.
ISO/IEC 10118 Critical Criteria:
Generalize ISO/IEC 10118 management and grade techniques for implementing ISO/IEC 10118 controls.
– Is ISO 45 1990 Required?
ISO/IEC 18025 Critical Criteria:
Merge ISO/IEC 18025 planning and devise ISO/IEC 18025 key steps.
– What are the success criteria that will indicate that ISO 45 1990 objectives have been met and the benefits delivered?
ISO 10012 Critical Criteria:
Extrapolate ISO 10012 leadership and assess what counts with ISO 10012 that we are not counting.
– Does the Calibration Lab monitor and control environmental factors in order to mitigate their effects on the calibration process or provide appropriate adjustments when necessary?
– Auditors should look at these requirements in light of the organization s QMS scope -how will these requirements impact the QMS ability to fulfill this scope?
– Are personnel involved in calibrating M&TE trained to local calibration procedures and the appropriate higher level requirements?
– Are items returned for calibration as scheduled and/or when found to have broken calibration seals, damaged, or malfunctioning?
– Does the supplier have a documented system to control the use and calibration of measuring and test equipment?
– Does this requirement add value to this element of confidence, without the where appropriate being addressed?
– What impact does a change in supplier or source of a material/component have on CM activities?
– Are Acceptance Sampling and Statistical Process Control Complementary or Incompatible?
– Item identity or serial number that is traceable to a detailed calibration record?
– Are inactive standards identified as inactive or calibration not required?
– Does the supplier use outside calibration laboratories?
– Have roles and responsibilities been defined?
– How Green is Your Property Portfolio?
– During -process happening properly?
– Has a CM plan been developed?
– How are distributors handled?
– What should auditors do?
– ISO What does it mean?
– What is required?
– What is Quality?
Delivery Multimedia Integration Framework Critical Criteria:
Shape Delivery Multimedia Integration Framework governance and reduce Delivery Multimedia Integration Framework costs.
– How do you incorporate cycle time, productivity, cost control, and other efficiency and effectiveness factors into these ISO 45 1990 processes?
– Where do ideas that reach policy makers and planners as proposals for ISO 45 1990 strengthening and reform actually originate?
– Does ISO 45 1990 appropriately measure and monitor risk?
ISO/IEC 13211-1 Critical Criteria:
Have a session on ISO/IEC 13211-1 management and create a map for yourself.
– Can we do ISO 45 1990 without complex (expensive) analysis?
Escherichia coli O157 Critical Criteria:
Check Escherichia coli O157 adoptions and describe which business rules are needed as Escherichia coli O157 interface.
– What are your results for key measures or indicators of the accomplishment of your ISO 45 1990 strategy and action plans, including building and strengthening core competencies?
– Think of your ISO 45 1990 project. what are the main functions?
Antimagnetic watch Critical Criteria:
Experiment with Antimagnetic watch strategies and achieve a single Antimagnetic watch view and bringing data together.
– Is Supporting ISO 45 1990 documentation required?
– How would one define ISO 45 1990 leadership?
ISO/IEC 19794 Critical Criteria:
Grade ISO/IEC 19794 visions and look in other fields.
– What is the total cost related to deploying ISO 45 1990, including any consulting or professional services?
ISO/IEC 5218 Critical Criteria:
Experiment with ISO/IEC 5218 decisions and revise understanding of ISO/IEC 5218 architectures.
American National Standards Institute Critical Criteria:
Win new insights about American National Standards Institute governance and oversee American National Standards Institute requirements.
– How can we incorporate support to ensure safe and effective use of ISO 45 1990 into the services that we provide?
– How do we keep improving ISO 45 1990?
ISO/PAS 28007 Critical Criteria:
Ventilate your thoughts about ISO/PAS 28007 governance and question.
ISO/IEC 24744 Critical Criteria:
Inquire about ISO/IEC 24744 quality and clarify ways to gain access to competitive ISO/IEC 24744 services.
– How will you know that the ISO 45 1990 project has been successful?
– Does the ISO 45 1990 task fit the clients priorities?
ISO/IEC 8859-1 Critical Criteria:
Gauge ISO/IEC 8859-1 quality and diversify disclosure of information – dealing with confidential ISO/IEC 8859-1 information.
– How likely is the current ISO 45 1990 plan to come in on schedule or on budget?
ISO/IEC 8859-16 Critical Criteria:
Check ISO/IEC 8859-16 goals and plan concise ISO/IEC 8859-16 education.
– For your ISO 45 1990 project, identify and describe the business environment. is there more than one layer to the business environment?
– Who needs to know about ISO 45 1990 ?
ISO/IEC 14977 Critical Criteria:
Chat re ISO/IEC 14977 projects and work towards be a leading ISO/IEC 14977 expert.
– Consider your own ISO 45 1990 project. what types of organizational problems do you think might be causing or affecting your problem, based on the work done so far?
– How is the value delivered by ISO 45 1990 being measured?
ISO/IEC 15897 Critical Criteria:
Align ISO/IEC 15897 tactics and get answers.
– How do we go about Comparing ISO 45 1990 approaches/solutions?
Assistive technology Critical Criteria:
Survey Assistive technology governance and assess and formulate effective operational and Assistive technology strategies.
– What are specific ISO 45 1990 Rules to follow?
This quick readiness checklist is a selected resource to help you move forward. Learn more about how to achieve comprehensive insights with the ISO 45 1990 Self Assessment:
Author: Gerard Blokdijk
CEO at The Art of Service | http://theartofservice.com
Gerard is the CEO at The Art of Service. He has been providing information technology insights, talks, tools and products to organizations in a wide range of industries for over 25 years. Gerard is a widely recognized and respected information expert. Gerard founded The Art of Service consulting business in 2000. Gerard has authored numerous published books to date.
To address the criteria in this checklist, these selected resources are provided for sources of further research and information:
ISO/TR 19122 External links:
ISO 10555 External links:
Bureau of Normalization External links:
ISO/IEC 13818 External links:
Hash function External links:
General Purpose Hash Function Algorithms – By Arash Partow
The Skein Hash Function Family
A Hash Function for Hash Table Lookup – burtleburtle
ISO 11940-2 External links:
Common Object Request Broker Architecture External links:
ISO/IEC 27005 External links:
ISO/IEC 27005 risk management standard
ISO/IEC 27005:2011 – pilar-tools.com
ISO/IEC 27005 情報セキュリティリスクマネジメン …Translate this page
ISO/IEC 17020 External links:
ISO/IEC 17020(JIS Q 17020)による 検査機関 認定制度
AENOR: Norma UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17020:2012
Endüstriyel Hizmetler, EN ISO/IEC 17020 Muayene …Translate this page
ISO/IEC 19794-5 External links:
ISO/IEC 19794-5 | Correlance
Greek alphabet External links:
Greek Alphabet Flash Cards – Bible Games for Kids
Greek Alphabet Flashcards | Quizlet
15th letter of the Greek alphabet – crossword puzzle clue
ISO/IEC 23360 External links:
Common Criteria External links:
About The Common Criteria : New CC Portal
EWA-Canada – Common Criteria Certified Products
CSA Common Criteria
Extended BNF External links:
ISO 1073-1 External links:
Code 128 External links:
git did not exit cleanly (exit code 128) – nd – 博客园Translate this page
Generating Code 128 Barcodes using Excel VBA – Stack Overflow
The code 128 – Grandzebu
ISO/IEC 17024 External links:
AENOR: Norma UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17024:2012
NORMA TÉCNICA COLOMBIANA NTC-ISO/IEC 17024
http://www.atentoips.com/PDF/NTC ISO IEC 17024.pdf
Control chart External links:
Control Chart (6 Sigma) – SpreadsheetZONE
QC: The Levey-Jennings Control Chart – Westgard
How to Create a Control Chart (with Sample Control Charts)
Conformance testing External links:
Accessibility Conformance Testing (ACT) Rules Format 1.0
ISO 10218 External links:
産業用ロボットの安全性 ISO 10218 JIS B 8433））規格説明会
ISO/IEC 27001 External links:
よくあるご質問 | ISO/IEC 27001（情報セキュリ …Translate this page
ISO/IEC 27001 certification standard
ISO 10380 External links:
ISO 10012 External links:
ISO 10012-2003 中文版 测量管理系统.测量方法和测 …Translate this page
Escherichia coli O157 External links:
Escherichia coli O157 produttore di verocitotossina …Translate this page
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome
ISO/IEC 19794 External links:
ISO/IEC 19794-5 | Correlance
American National Standards Institute External links:
ANSI – American National Standards Institute
ANSI – American National Standards Institute – EDI Basics
ISO/IEC 8859-1 External links:
ISO/IEC 15897 External links:
Assistive technology External links:
Assistive Technology Quotations
Missouri Assistive Technology
ATIA | Assistive Technology Industry Association